TABLE OF CONTENTS

Principles of Avionics Ninth Edition

Chapter 1. Introduction to Avionics

  • 1.1 History
  • 1.2 Flying Blind
  • 1.3 Radio Comes of Age
  • 1.4 Beginning of the National Airspace System
  • 1.5 Navigation Principles
    • 1.5.1 Charts and Maps
    • 1.5.2 Heading and Course
  • 1.6 Regulatory and Advisory Agencies
  • 1.7 National Airspace System
  • 1.8 The Federal Radionavigation Plan
  • 1.9 Next Generation Air Transportation System, NextGen
  • Chapter 1 Review Questions
  • Further Reading

Chapter 2. Terrestrial Radio Navigation

  • 2.1 Non-Directional Beacons and Direction Finding
  • 2.2 Direction Finding Receivers
    • 2.2.1 Loop Antenna
  • 2.3 Automatic Direction Finding
    • 2.3.1 Local Oscillator
    • 2.3.2 BFO
  • 2.4 Errors in Direction Finding
  • 2.5 Static Dischargers
  • 2.6 VOR: VHF Omni-Range
    • 2.6.1 VOR Indicator
    • 2.6.2 Using the VOR
  • 2.7 Signal Integrity
  • 2.8 Errors in VOR Navigation
  • 2.9 Doppler VOR
  • 2.10 VOR Ground Station
    • 2.10.1 Ground Station Signal Integrity Monitoring
  • 2.11 VOR Receiver
  • 2.12 VOR Test Equipment
  • 2.13 DME: Distance Measuring Equipment
    • 2.13.1 DME Indicator
    • 2.13.2 DME Interrogator
    • 2.13.3 Enhanced DME, Scanning DME
  • 2.14 DME Ground Station
  • 2.15 TACAN
  • 2.16 LORAN-C: Long Range Navigation
    • 2.16.1 LORAN-C Chain
    • 2.16.2 LORAN-C Errors
    • 2.16.3 LORAN-C Ground Station
    • 2.16.4 Signal Integrity
    • 2.16.5 LORAN-C Receivers
  • 2.17 Enhanced LORAN
    • 2.17.1 Time of Transmission, TOT, Control
    • 2.17.2 Equipment Update
  • Chapter 2 Review Questions
  • References

Chapter 3. Terrestrial Landing Aids

  • 3.0 Introduction
  • 3.1 ILS: Instrument Landing System
    • 3.1.1 Localizer
    • 3.1.2 Localizer Ground Station
    • 3.1.3 Back Course
    • 3.1.4 Localizer Receiver
    • 3.1.5 Localizer Receiver Signal Integrity
  • 3.2 Marker Beacons
    • 3.2.1 Marker Beacon Ground Station
  • 3.3 Glide Slope
    • 3.3.1 Glide Slope Ground Station
    • 3.3.2 ILS Categories
  • 3.4 ILS Errors
  • 3.5 Microwave Landing System (MLS)
    • 3.5.1 Precesion DME
    • 3.5.2 Precision DME Accuracy
  • 3.6 Comparison of MLS and ILS
  • 3.7 Radar Altimeter
  • 3.8 FMCW Radar Altimeter
    • 3.8.1 Aircraft Installation Delay
    • 3.8.2 Multiple Altimeter Installations
    • 3.8.3 Radar Altimeter Indicator
    • 3.8.4 Testing and Evaluating Radar Altimeters
  • 3.9 Terrain Awareness and Warning System, TAWS
    • 3.9.1 Ground Proximity Modes from TSO-C92c
    • 3.9.2 Forward Looking Terrain Avoidance, FLTA
    • 3.9.3 Determining Terrain Hazards
    • 3.9.4 The Terrain Database
    • 3.9.5 Special Problems of the Terminal Area
    • 3.9.6 TAWS Displays
  • Chapter 3 Review Questions

Chapter 4. Satellite Navigation

  • 4.0 Introduction
  • 4.1 GPS: Global Positioning System
    • 4.1.1 Finding Position With Orbiting Satellites
    • 4.1.2 Orbits
    • 4.1.3 Perturbations of the GPS Orbit
    • 4.1.4 Determining Range
  • 4.2 GPS Clocks
    • 4.2.1 GPS Time
    • 4.2.2 Finding Position From Time Measurements
    • 4.2.3 Correcting the User Clock
  • 4.3 Earth Model
  • 4.4 Space Vehicle
  • 4.5 GPS Signals
  • 4.6 Generating PRN Codes
  • 4.7 PRN Codes
    • 4.7.1 GPS PRN Generator
  • 4.8 Navigation Message
    • 4.8.1 Determining the Time Delay
  • 4.9 PPS: Precision Position Service
  • 4.10 Almanac
    • 4.10.1 Clock Corrections
    • 4.10.2 Ephemerides
    • 4.10.3 Ionospheric Corrections
    • 4.10.4 UTC Corrections
  • 4.11 Signal Integrity monitoring Concerns
  • 4.12 Relationship Between GPS Frequencies
  • 4.13 Monitor and Control Stations
  • 4.14 Selective Availability
  • 4.15 Ionospheric Propagation Delay
  • 4.16 Signal Integrity Monitoring
  • 4.17 Differential GPS
    • 4.17.1 Wide Area Augumentation System, WAAS
    • 4.17.2 Functional Classes of WAAS Equipment
    • 4.17.3 Operational Classes of WAAS Equipment
    • 4.17.4 WAAS Corrections
  • 4.18 Local Area Augmentation System, LAAS
  • 4.19 GPS Signal in Space
  • 4.20 GPS Receivers
  • 4.21 GPS Accuracy
  • 4.22 GPS Navigation
  • 4.23 Area Navigation, RNAV
  • 4.24 GPS Modernization
  • 4.25 Galileo
  • 4.26 GLONASS
  • 4.27 BeiDou
  • Chapter 4 Review Questions
  • References

Chapter 5. Surveillance Systems

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Free Flight
  • 5.3 Primary Radar
  • 5.4 Secondary Radar
  • 5.5 Replies
  • 5.6 Mode C
  • 5.7 Mode S System
    • 5.7.1 Mode S or ICAO 24 bit Aircraft Address
  • 5.8 Mode S Interrogations
    • 5.8.1 Acquisition
  • 5.9 Mode S Selective Call
  • 5.10 Checking for Errors
  • 5.11 Mode S Replies
  • 5.12 Diversity
  • 5.13 ATCRBS Transponder
  • 5.14 Mode S Transponder
  • 5.15 Collision Avoidance
    • 5.15.1 Collision Avoidance Concepts
    • 5.15.2 CAS Logic
    • 5.15.3 TCAS Hardware
    • 5.15.4 Reducing Garble
    • 5.15.5 TCAS III
  • 5.16 Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS)
    • 5.16.1 ADS-B in Accordance with FAA TSO-C195a
    • 5.16.2 Aircraft Surveillance Applications, ASA
      • 5.16.2.1 Basic Symbology
      • 5.16.2.2 See and Avoid and ADS-B
    • 5.16.3 Data Links for ADS-B
      • 5.16.3.1 ADS-B Using 1090ES
      • 5.16.3.2 Basic ADS-B Reports
    • 5.16.4 Accuracy, Integrity and Safety
    • 5.16.5 ADS-B Using the UAT Data Link
    • 5.16.6 UAT ADS-B Message Structures
    • 5.16.7 System Implementation
      • 5.16.7.1 Latency
    • 5.16.8 Safety Assessment and ADS-B
  • 5.17 Lightning Detection
  • 5.18 Weather Radar
    • 5.18.1 Turbulence Mode, Weather Radar
    • 5.18.2 Weather Picture
  • Chapter 5 Review Questions

Chapter 6. Airborne Communications Systems

  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 VHF AM Communications
  • 6.3 VHF Communications Hardware
    • 6.3.1 VHF Communications Receiver
    • 6.3.2 VHF Communications Transmitter
    • 6.3.3 Frequency Synthesizer
    • 6.3.4 NAVCOM Transceiver
    • 6.3.5 Antennas
  • 6.4 High Frequency Communications
    • 6.4.1 Generating Single Sideband
    • 6.4.2 Frequency Synthesizer
    • 6.4.3 Demodulation
    • 6.4.4 HF Receiver
    • 6.4.5 HF Antennas
    • 6.4.6 Naming Communications Channels
  • 6.5 Classes of Communications
    • 6.5.1 Air Traffic Management/Air Traffic Control
    • 6.5.2 Aircraft Communications, Addressing and Reporting Systems, ACARS
    • 6.5.3 SELCAL
  • 6.6 Search and Rescue Beacons
    • 6.6.1 COSPAS/SARSAT System
    • 6.6.2 The 406 MHz Signal
  • 6.7 Rescue Beacon Installations
  • 6.8 Digital Communications and Networking
    • 6.8.1 Network Topology
    • 6.8.1.1 Transport Layer, Session Layer, Presentation and Application Layer
    • 6.8.1.2 Layer 3, Network
    • 6.8.1.3 Layer 2, Datalink
    • 6.8.1.3.1 Data Link Layer: Multiple Access
    • 6.8.1.4 Layer 1, Physical
  • 6.9 VHF Digital Communications
    • 6.9.1 Aeronautical Telecommunications Network , ATN
    • 6.9.2 VDL Modes
    • 6.9.3 D8PSK
  • 6.10 Data Link, Mode S
  • Chapter 6 Review Questions
  • References

Chapter 7. Onboard Communications

  • 7.0 Introduction
  • 7.1 Microphones, Speakers and Headphones
  • 7.2 Onboard Digital Communication
  • 7.3 Transmission Lines
    • 7.3.1 Line Codes
    • 7.3.2 Transmission Line Drivers and Receivers
  • 7.4 ARINC 429
  • 7.5 MIL STD 1553
    • 7.5.1 Bus Controller
    • 7.5.2 Synchronization
  • 7.6 ARINC 629
  • 7.7 Commercial Standard Digital Bus, CSDB
  • 7.8 Avionics Ethernet, ARINC 664
    • 7.8.1 Insuring a Deterministic Network
    • 7.8.2 Bandwidth Allocation
    • 7.8.3 ARINC 664 Frame
    • 7.8.4 Physical Layer
  • 7.9 ARINC 825, CAN Bus
    • 7.9.1 CAN Messages
    • 7.9.2 The Data Frame
      • 7.9.2.1 Priority
      • 7.9.2.2 Error Frame
      • 7.9.2.3 Node Service Protocol Frame
    • 7.9.3 Time Triggered Bus Scheduling
    • 7.9.4 Data
  • 7.10 ARINC 573, 615, 708 and Other Data Bus Protocols
  • 7.11 Fiber Optic Data Communications
    • 7.11.1 Glass Fiber as a Transmission Line
  • 7.12 Time Domain Reflectometry
  • Chapter 7 Review Questions
  • References

Chapter 8. Indicators

  • 8.0 Introduction
  • 8.1 Gyroscope
  • 8.2 Synchros
  • 8.3 Flux Gate Compass
  • 8.4 RMI: Radio Magnetic Indicator
  • 8.5 HSI: Horizontal Situation Indicator
  • 8.6 ADI: Attitude Director (Direction) Indicator
  • 8.7 Electronic Displays
  • 8.8 Display Technologies
    • 8.8.1 Incandescent
    • 8.8.2 Light Emitting Diodes
    • 8.8.3 Plasma
    • 8.8.4 Liquid Crystal: LCD
    • 8.8.5 Cathode Ray Tube: CRT
    • 8.8.6 Field Emission Displays
    • 8.8.7 Colors and Gray Scale
  • 8.9 Display Systems
  • 8.10 Instrument Placement
  • 8.11 Head Up Display (HUD)
  • Chapter 8 Review Questions

Chapter 9. Air Data Computers

  • 9.0 All About Air
  • 9.1 Atmospheric Temperature
  • 9.2 Atmospheric Pressure
  • 9.3 Air Speed
  • 9.4 Pitot-Static System
  • 9.5 Temperature
  • 9.6 Sensors
  • 9.7 Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum, RVSM
  • 9.8 Angle of Attack Indicator
  • 9.9 Air Data Computer System
  • Chapter 9 Review Questions

Chapter 10. Flight Control Systems

  • 10.0 Introduction
  • 10.1 Control Systems
  • 10.2 Servo Motors
  • 10.3 Flight Control System Modes
  • 10.4 FCS Control Panel
  • 10.5 Aircraft Dynamics
  • 10.6 Yaw Damper
  • 10.7 Fly By Wire
  • 10.8 Inertial Navigation
    • 10.8.1 Frames of Reference
    • 10.8.1.1 Locally-Level Frame of Reference
  • 10.9 The Stabilized Platform
    • 10.9.1 Orientation of the Stabilized Platform
    • 10.9.2 Problems Associated with a Stabilized Platform
    • 10.9.3 Strapdown
    • 10.9.4 Initializing the Gimbaled Platform
  • 10.10 Improving Long Term Accuracy of INS
  • 10.11 Accelerometers
  • 10.12 Lightwave Gyros
    • 10.12.1 Ring Laser Gyro
    • 10.12.2 Fiber Optic Gyro
  • Chapter 10 Review Questions

Chapter 11. Complete Avionics System

  • 11.0 Introduction
  • 11.1 Power Sources
  • 11.2 Batteries
    • 11.2.1 Characteristics of Cells
    • 11.2.2 Defining Battery Capacity
    • 11.2.3 Nickel Cadmium Cell
    • 11.2.4 Methods of charging
    • 11.2.5 Determining Full Charge
    • 11.2.6 Memory Effect
    • 11.2.7 Nickel Metal Hydride
    • 11.2.8 Cell Reversal
    • 11.2.9 Thermal Runaway
    • 11.2.10 Battery Reconditioning
    • 11.2.11 Primary Cells for Aircraft Use
    • 11.2.12 Battery Safety
    • 11.2.13 Quality of the Power Supply
  • 11.3 Avionics Environment According to DO-160
  • 11.4 HIRF
  • 11.5 EMC: Electromagnetic Compatibility
  • 11.6 LRU: Line Replaceable Units
  • 11.7 ARINC Type Equipment
  • 11.8 Fault Tolerance
  • 11.9 Computer Architecture
    • 11.9.1 Central Architecture
    • 11.9.2 Distributed Architecture
    • 11.9.3 Federated Architecture

Chapter 12. Performance-Based Navigation and Required Navigation Performance

  • 12.0 Introduction
  • 12.1 Required Navigation Performance
  • 12.2 Implementing RNAV/RNP
  • 12.3 Specifying RNAV/RNP
  • 12.4 Fundamentals of RNP
  • 12.5 Error Sources
  • 12.6 OnBoard Monitoring and Alerting
  • 12.7 Determining Actual Navigation Performance
  • 12.8 Containment
  • 12.9 Navigation Sensors for RNP
  • 12.10 Reversionary Modes for Loss of Navigation Sensors
  • 12.11 Designing RNAV/RNP Approaches
  • 12.12 RNAV Approaches with Vertical Guidance

Glossary

Appendix A: ARINC Documents

Appendix B: RTCA Documents

Appendix C: DME Channels

Index

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